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DIVERSITY, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION

Metacognitive Strategies for Supporting SEN Students

By Dr. Niki Melanidou
17-Jan-24
Metacognitive Strategies for Supporting SEN Students


Metacognition is a powerful cognitive process that involves thinking about your own thinking. It's the ability to step back and become aware of your thought processes, strategies, and approaches to learning. In essence, it's like having a conversation with yourself about how you learn, solve problems, and make decisions (Flavell, 1976). Metacognition goes beyond the content of what you're learning and focuses on the "how" and "why" of your learning experiences (Hacker, Dunlosky, & Graesser, 1998).

Setting Goals and Planning: Metacognition allows students to set clear goals for their learning and create strategic plans to achieve them (Pintrich, 2002). When students understand their learning objectives and have a plan to reach them, they are more likely to stay motivated and focused (Zimmerman, 1998).

Adapting Strategies: Through metacognition, learners can evaluate the effectiveness of their learning strategies (Efklides, 2008). If a student is struggling with memorization, for instance, they can reflect on whether there's a more effective strategy, such as creating associations or using mnemonic devices (Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009).

Self-Monitoring: Metacognition involves self-monitoring, where learners keep track of their progress (Brown, 1987). They can ask questions like, "Am I understanding this topic well?" or "Are my study methods helping me retain information?" Adjustments can then be made if needed.

Problem-Solving: Metacognition aids in problem-solving by encouraging individuals to think about their approach to tackling challenges (Flavell, 1979). Someone who's metacognitively aware might ask themselves, "Have I encountered a similar problem before? How did I solve it?" This reflection can lead to more efficient problem-solving (Schraw & Moshman, 1995).

Regulation of Learning: Metacognition involves self-regulation, where learners manage their own learning experiences (Zimmerman, 1989). This includes managing time, seeking help when needed, and adjusting their strategies if they're not yielding the desired outcomes (Efklides, 2011).

In the context of supporting special education needs (SEN) students, metacognition is especially beneficial. It empowers these students to better understand their own learning processes, strengths, and areas where they might need additional support. By teaching metacognitive strategies, educators can provide students with tools to navigate their learning journey more effectively, building self-confidence and independence along the way. Overall, metacognition enhances learning by turning students into active, reflective learners who are not just absorbing information but are also taking charge of their learning experiences. It's an invaluable skill that can significantly impact academic success and personal growth.

Metacognitive Skills for SEN Students: Fostering Independence and Effectiveness

Metacognitive skills hold a special significance for SEN students, as they can serve as a powerful catalyst for fostering independence and enhancing their effectiveness as learners (Hattie, 2011). Here's a more detailed exploration of this relevance:

Empowerment through Self-Awareness: Metacognition enables SEN students to become acutely aware of their individual learning profiles, strengths, and challenges (Swanson & Hsieh, 2009). This self-awareness empowers them to take ownership of their learning journey, allowing them to make informed decisions about how they approach different tasks and subjects (Brown & Reeve, 2006).

Tailored Learning Approaches: With metacognitive skills, SEN students can identify the learning strategies that work best for them (Flavell, 1976). This personalization allows them to adopt approaches that align with their strengths, making learning more effective and efficient. As a result, they become less reliant on external guidance and more capable of orchestrating their learning experiences (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007).

Strategic Problem-Solving: SEN students often encounter unique challenges in their learning process (Borkowski et al., 2000). Metacognition equips them with problem-solving skills that go beyond the immediate task at hand. They can reflect on similar challenges they've faced before and employ strategies that have proven successful. This strategic thinking promotes autonomy in overcoming obstacles (Efklides, 2008).

Confidence Boost: Metacognition fosters a sense of competence and self-assurance in SEN students (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1998). As they grasp a deeper understanding of their learning processes and recognize their progress, their confidence grows. This confidence becomes a vital driving force in their pursuit of academic goals.

Engagement and Motivation: When SEN students are actively engaged in the metacognitive process, they become more invested in their learning (Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009). This heightened engagement can lead to increased motivation to tackle tasks and subjects that might have previously seemed daunting.

Transitioning to Lifelong Learning: The metacognitive skills acquired by SEN students are not limited to the classroom (Livingston, 2003). These skills equip them with lifelong learning tools. As they enter higher education or the workforce, they possess the ability to adapt, learn independently, and continue developing their abilities.

Reducing Dependence: One of the ultimate goals of education for SEN students is to reduce dependence on constant guidance (Agran et al., 2001). Metacognition aligns perfectly with this goal by enabling students to navigate their academic journey with increasing autonomy, relying less on external support.

In the context of supporting SEN students, metacognitive skills become a transformative tool that extends beyond academics. By honing these skills, educators can contribute to shaping students who are not only successful learners, but also confident and resilient individuals prepared to face a variety of challenges. In essence, metacognition is a vehicle that propels SEN students becoming active participants in their own learning experiences. It offers them the means to steer their educational path, make informed choices, and embrace the joy of discovery. By emphasizing metacognitive skills, educators provide SEN students with a lifelong gift—a profound sense of control over their learning and their futures.

The Focus on Learning Process: Empowering SEN Students With Metacognitive Strategies

Metacognitive strategies are like a roadmap for learning. They help students navigate their way through the complexities of studying, problem-solving, and comprehending new concepts (Borkowski et al., 2000). These strategies are designed to optimize how students process information, interact with content, and engage in learning tasks (Efklides, 2008). By honing metacognitive skills, students can become more independent learners who are capable of:

Setting Goals: Defining what they want to achieve from their learning experiences (Pintrich, 2002).

Planning: Outlining steps and strategies to accomplish their goals (Zimmerman, 1998).

Monitoring: Checking their progress and evaluating the effectiveness of their strategies (Brown & Reeve, 2006).

Adjusting: Modifying their approaches based on feedback and self-assessment (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1998).

Problem-Solving: Overcoming challenges by selecting the best strategies for the task (Flavell, 1979).

How Can Metacognitive Strategies Empower Students With Special Education Needs To Gain a Better Understanding of Their Strengths and Challenges?

Self-Reflection: Metacognitive strategies encourage SEN students to reflect on their learning experiences (Brown, 1987). By looking back at their achievements and struggles, they can identify patterns and trends in their performance. This self-reflection enables them to recognize the subjects or tasks where they excel and those that might require additional effort.

Identifying Learning Preferences: Through metacognition, SEN students can become more attuned to their learning preferences (Hattie, 2011). They can determine whether they learn better through visual aids, auditory input, hands-on experiences, or a combination of these. Recognizing their preferred learning style allows them to leverage it to their advantage.

Understanding Cognitive Processes: Metacognition involves understanding one's cognitive processes (Flavell, 1976). For SEN students, this means recognizing how they process information, make connections, and solve problems. This understanding enables them to pinpoint areas where they might face challenges and devise strategies to work around these challenges.

Acknowledging Accomplishments: Metacognitive strategies help SEN students celebrate their accomplishments, no matter how small (Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009). By acknowledging their progress, they build self-esteem and confidence. This positivity motivates them to continue putting effort into their learning journey.

Overcoming Challenges: SEN students often encounter specific challenges related to their learning differences (Agran et al., 2001). Metacognitive strategies enable them to approach these challenges strategically. They can identify where they struggle and devise targeted approaches to overcome those difficulties.

Developing Self-Advocacy: Through metacognition, SEN students learn to advocate for themselves (Livingston, 2003). By understanding their learning strengths and challenges, they can effectively communicate their needs to teachers, parents, and support staff. This self-advocacy ensures they receive the appropriate assistance and accommodations.

Promoting Autonomy: Metacognitive strategies encourage autonomy in learning (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007). As SEN students become more aware of their own learning processes, they gain the tools to regulate their learning independently. This independence is a critical skill that prepares them for academic and life challenges beyond school.

Individualized Learning Plans: Metacognitive insights can inform the creation of individualized learning plans (ILP) for SEN students (Swanson & Hsieh, 2009). Educators can tailor instruction and support based on each student's unique strengths and challenges, providing a personalized learning experience.

Boosting Confidence, Engagement, and Academic Performance With Metacognitive Strategies

Confidence: Metacognition helps students develop a deeper understanding of their learning processes and abilities (Flavell, 1976). This increased self-awareness leads to greater self-confidence. When students recognize their strengths and are equipped with strategies to address challenges, they approach tasks with a more positive attitude. As they experience success through thoughtful planning and effective strategies, their confidence in their own capabilities grows (Pintrich, 2002).

Engagement: Metacognitive strategies make learning more purposeful and engaging (Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009). When students actively reflect on their learning methods and set goals, they become more invested in the learning process. They become curious about their progress and motivated to understand how they can improve. This engagement transforms learning from a passive activity to an active pursuit of self-improvement (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007).

Academic Performance: The impact of metacognitive strategies on academic performance is profound (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1998). By understanding their learning strengths and preferences, students can optimize their study habits and approaches to assignments. They become more efficient at processing information and retaining knowledge. The ability to monitor their own progress and adjust strategies as needed leads to more effective learning outcomes, ultimately translating into improved academic performance (Efklides, 2008).

Ownership of Learning: Metacognitive strategies foster a sense of ownership over learning (Hattie, 2011). Students no longer rely solely on teachers or external sources for guidance. Instead, they take initiative in directing their own learning experiences. This ownership instills a sense of responsibility and empowerment, leading to increased engagement and better performance.

Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving: Metacognition encourages critical thinking by prompting students to question their learning approaches and consider alternative strategies (Flavell, 1979). This enhanced critical thinking directly translates into better problem-solving skills. When students are adept at analyzing their learning methods, they can identify more effective solutions to academic challenges.

Transferable Skills: Metacognitive strategies are not limited to the classroom (Livingston, 2003). The skills students develop through metacognition—such as self-reflection, goal setting, and adaptability—are transferable to various life situations. These skills contribute to personal growth and success beyond the academic setting.

Reduced Anxiety: SEN students often face anxiety related to academic performance. Metacognitive strategies provide a structured approach to learning, reducing uncertainty and anxiety. When students have confidence in their strategies and understand their learning process, they are less likely to experience debilitating stress.

Metacognitive Strategies for SEN Support: Enhancing Learning through Goal Setting and Planning, Self-Monitoring, Problem-Solving, and Learning Strategies

Goal Setting and Planning: Setting clear goals and creating a structured plan of action are essential components of effective learning, particularly for students with special educational needs (SEN) (Hattie, 2011). Clear goals provide students with direction and purpose, while a well-structured plan breaks down overwhelming tasks into manageable steps. It's crucial to emphasize to teachers the importance of guiding students in setting realistic goals that align with their abilities. Encourage teachers to help students break down complex tasks into smaller, achievable steps, enabling them to stay motivated and on track (Zimmerman, 1998).

Self-Monitoring: Self-monitoring plays a pivotal role in empowering SEN students to take control of their learning (Efklides, 2008). This strategy involves students regularly assessing their progress and evaluating the effectiveness of their learning strategies. Encourage teachers to introduce tools like checklists, progress journals, and reflection prompts. These tools help students track their progress, identify patterns, and make informed decisions about which strategies are working and which need adjustments (Dunlosky & Metcalfe, 2009).

Problem-Solving and Reflection: Teaching problem-solving strategies equips SEN students with valuable skills for navigating challenges independently (Borkowski et al., 2000). Problem-solving involves analyzing a challenge, identifying potential solutions, and choosing the best approach. Encourage teachers to guide students through this process, fostering critical thinking and decision making skills. Moreover, emphasize the significance of regular reflection on learning experiences. Reflecting allows students to recognize what strategies were effective, what obstacles were encountered, and how they can improve for future tasks (Flavell, 1979).

Use of Learning Strategies: Explicitly teaching learning strategies empowers SEN students to approach learning tasks strategically (Pintrich, 2002). Strategies like visualization, summarization, and questioning techniques enhance comprehension and retention. Teachers should not only teach these strategies but also model their application in different subjects. This helps students grasp how to adapt these strategies across various learning contexts.

Implementation in the Classroom: Integrating metacognitive strategies into classroom activities and assignments is vital for SEN students' success (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1998). Practical implementation includes guiding students through goal-setting exercises, providing opportunities for self-monitoring and reflection, and incorporating problem-solving activities. Differentiation is key, as SEN students have diverse needs. Teachers should tailor strategies to individual students' strengths and challenges, ensuring an inclusive and supportive learning environment.

Conclusion and Action Steps:

  • Consider the potential impact of the key metacognitive strategies on SEN students' learning experiences (Flavell, 1976).
  • Take gradual steps toward implementation by starting with one or two strategies that resonate with your teaching style and your students' needs (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2007).
  • These strategies not only enhance the learning experience for SEN students but also empower them to take control of their education and future success (Hattie, 2011).

 

References

Agran, M., Blanchard, C., Wehmeyer, M., & Hughes, C. (2001). Increasing the problem-solving skills of students with developmental disabilities participating in general education. Remedial and Special Education, 22(6), 331-341.

Borkowski, J. G., Chan, L. K., & Muthukrishna, N. (2000). A process-oriented model of metacognition: Links between motivation and executive functioning. In Handbook of self-regulation, 141-165.

Brown, A. L. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation, and other more mysterious mechanisms. In Metacognition, motivation, and understanding, 65-116.

Brown, A. L., & Reeve, R. A. (2006). Bandura's social cognitive theory and the self-regulation of learning. In Handbook of educational psychology, 2, 349-367.

Dunlosky, J., & Metcalfe, J. (2009). Metacognition. Sage Publications.

Efklides, A. (2008). Metacognition: Defining its facets and levels of functioning in relation to selfregulation and co-regulation. European Psychologist, 13(4), 277-287.

Efklides, A. (2011). Interactions of metacognition with motivation and affect in self-regulated learning:   The MASRL model. Educational   Psychologist, 46(1), 6–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2011.538645

Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem-solving. The Nature of Intelligence, 231-236.

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive– developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906-911.

Hattie, J. (2011). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.

Livingston, J. A. (2003). Metacognition: An overview. Online Submission.

Pintrich, P. R. (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessing. Theory into practice, 41(4), 219-225.

Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02212307

Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice. Guilford Press.

Swanson, H. L., & Hsieh, C. J. (2009). Reading disabilities in adults: A selective meta-analysis of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 79(3), 1362-1391.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning. Journal of educational psychology, 81(3), 329.

Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 1–19). Guilford Publications.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2007). Reliability and validity of self-efficacy for learning form (SELF) scores of college students. Journal of Psychology, 215(3), 157-163.

 

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Dr. Niki Melanidou is a Greek teacher, Inclusion Officer, and Head of Year at The English School, Nicosia, and Special Teaching Scientist at University of Cyprus.

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pedagogy.cy




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